Williamson, G. Bruce. 1988.
Michael C. Wiemann y G. Bruce Williamson. 1988. Extreme radial changes in wood specific gravity in some tropical pioneers. Wood and Fiber Science, 20(3), 1988, pp. 344-349 )
(tomado del artículo)
Twelve Hampea appendiculata, six Heliocarpus appendiculatus, and twelve Ochroma pyramidale trees from tropical wet forest in Costa Rica were sampled across their radii. Wood from all three species increased linearly in specific gravity , from pith to bark. The magnitude of the increase was about 0.1 units of specific gravity per 10 cm of radius, although there were differences between the species and between trees within each species. All three species colonize clearings and disturbed sites, and these extreme changes in specific gravity may be associated with the pioneer habit in the wet forest.
- Richards, P. y G. B. Williamson. 1975. Treefalls and Patterns of Understory Species in a Wet Lowland Tropical Forest. Ecology
- Cramer, J. M.; R. C. G. Mesquita; G. Bruce Williamson. 2007. Forest fragmentation differentially affects seed dispersal of large and small-seeded tropical trees. Biological Conservation.
- Mesquita, R. C. G.; K. Ickes; G. Ganade; G. Bruce Williamson. 2001. Alternative successional pathways in the Amazon Basin. Journal of Ecology
- Laurance, W. F.; G. Bruce Williamson, G. 2001. Positive feedbacks among forest fragmentation, drought, and climate change in the Amazon.
- Laurance, William F.; G. Bruce Williamson; et al. 2011. The fate of Amazonian forest fragments: A 32-year investigation. Biological Conservation.
- Wiemann, M.C.; G. Bruce Williamson. 2012. Testing a novel method to approximate wood specific gravity of trees. Forest Science.
- Oyomoare Osazuwa-Peters; Amy E. Zanne. 2011. Wood density protocol. Wood density is defined as mass of wood per unit volume. It is an important trait for understanding the function and ecology of woody species, as well as estimating stored biomass and carbon content (Chave et al. 2009). It is used as an indicator of wood quality and tissue allocation patterns and a predictor of plant performance.
- ^ . G.B. Williamson (PhD Indiana U, post doc en UofMichigan y Assistant Prof. at USFlorida; currently Associate Professor, Louisiana State University) developed his doctoral diss. about the ecological significance of specific gravity of wood (or wood density expressed in g/cm3). The central points are:
– slow-growing spp accumulate more wood/unit time than fast-growing spp, thereby, have a higher wood density
– the average wood density of a forest (mean of spp abundance times wood density of each spp) reflects the age of the forest (if there is no selective logging). The higher the mean wood density the older the forest.
∂k = (∑ ∂ini)/∑ni
∂k = mean density of the kth forest
∂i = wood density of the ith species
ni = abundance of the ith species
Luis Carlos García Lozano has a copy (paper) of Williamson's dissertation. It can be scanned or photocopied upon request.
- ^ . Rather ample lists of wood density values compliled from the ecological lierature, can be seen in:
– ICRAF Database - Wood Density
– Estimating Biomass and Biomass Change of Tropical Forests: a Primer. (FAO Forestry Paper - 134, 1997)
– Wood Densities of Tropical Tree Species
- ^ . Wood density is a specific property (a given sp of tree has a wood density value relatively constant accross the natural range of the sp); however, there is variance to this value: some of it is phenotypic (incomplete expression of genetically determined density), some ontogenic (younger individuals differ from older ones in terms of density) and also, in the case of the paper here cited, young wood differs from older wood (within the same individual).
- ^ . Besides the present paper, the basic references to Williamson's work are:
– Williamson, G. B. 1975. Pattern and seral composition in an old-growth beech-maple forest. Ecology 56(3):727-731.
– Williamson, G. B. 1984. Gradients in wood specific gravity of trees. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 111(1):51-55.