Diferencia entre revisiones de «Lecythis minor»

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[[Categoría:Especies]] [[Categoría:OED general]] [[Categoría:OED restauración]] [[Esbozo]]
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[[Categoría:Especies]] [[Categoría:OED general]] [[Categoría:OED restauración]] [[Categoría:Esbozo]]
  
 
      
 
      
 
http://sweetgum.nybg.org/lp/taxon.php?irn=208108
 
http://sweetgum.nybg.org/lp/taxon.php?irn=208108
==Taxonomy Details:==
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==Taxonomy Details==
  
 
*'''Family''' Lecythidaceae (Magnoliophyta)
 
*'''Family''' Lecythidaceae (Magnoliophyta)
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*Common names:* Colombia: Coco de mono, cocuelo, coquillo, olla de mono, ollita de mono.
 
*Common names:* Colombia: Coco de mono, cocuelo, coquillo, olla de mono, ollita de mono.
  
Distribution: Lecythis minor ranges from the northern coast of Colombia into the Magdalena and Cauca Valleys and east into the Maracaibo lowlands of Venezuela. It most often occurs in dry, open, somewhat disburbed habitats where it grows as a small, much-branched tree. However, it is also found in moister forests, especially along watercourses, where it forms a handsome, single-trunked tree to 25 meters. This species is cultivated sporadically in Central America and in tropical botanical gardens throughout the world.
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==Distribution==
 +
Lecythis minor ranges from the northern coast of Colombia into the Magdalena and Cauca Valleys and east into the Maracaibo lowlands of Venezuela. It most often occurs in dry, open, somewhat disburbed habitats where it grows as a small, much-branched tree. However, it is also found in moister forests, especially along watercourses, where it forms a handsome, single-trunked tree to 25 meters. This species is cultivated sporadically in Central America and in tropical botanical gardens throughout the world.
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 +
==Ecology/habitat==
 +
This species most often occurs in dry, open, somewhat disburbed habitats where it grows as a small, much-branched tree. However, it is also found in moister forests, especially along watercourses, where it forms a handsome, single-trunked tree to 25 meters.
  
Ecology: This species most often occurs in dry, open, somewhat disburbed habitats where it grows as a small, much-branched tree. However, it is also found in moister forests, especially along watercourses, where it forms a handsome, single-trunked tree to 25 meters.
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==Phenology==
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Lecythis minor flowers most profusely throughout its native range from Apr to Dec and fruits from Dec to Feb. In the protologue, Jacquin (1763) says that it flowers in Jun and Jul in the viciinity of Cartagena, Colombia. At Summit Garden in the Canal Zone (Panama) , where it is cultivated, this species flowers during the wet season from Apr to Nov.
  
Phenology: Lecythis minor flowers most profusely throughout its native range from Apr to Dec and fruits from Dec to Feb. In the protologue, Jacquin (1763) says that it flowers in Jun and Jul in the viciinity of Cartagena, Colombia. At Summit Garden in the Canal Zone (Panama) , where it is cultivated, this species flowers during the wet season from Apr to Nov.
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==Pollination==
 +
Jackson and Salas (1965) studied the pollination of Lecythis minor (as the synonym L. elliptica) based on a study of cultivated trees grown in Puerto Rico. These trees were grown from seeds imported from Summit Gardens, Panama where they had previously been introduced from Colombia. Fig. 2 of a carpenter bee in the flower leaves little doubt that the species under consideration is L. minor. Flowers that were bagged to exclude all all insects and others bagged to allow small insects such as thrips to enter the flowers did not set fruit. In addition, slides coated with oil and placed downwind to the trees to capture wind-blown pollen did not show any pollen of L. minor on the slides. Observations, indicate that two large insects, the carpenter bee (Xylocopa brasilianorum) and a scoliid wasp (Campsomeris trifasciata), are possible pollinators because their bodies contained pollen of L. minor and pollen was found on the stigmas after the carpenter bees and scoliid wasps departures from the flowers. The authors conclude that L. minor is allogamous, not wind pollinated, and that the most effectiive pollinator was the carpenter bee but that the scoliid wasp they observed also had the potential to affect pollination. Nectars of 16 flowers tested yielded between 23.8 to 31.8% soluble solids, with a mean of 27.8%.
  
Pollination: Jackson and Salas (1965) studied the pollination of Lecythis minor (as the synonym L. elliptica) based on a study of cultivated trees grown in Puerto Rico. These trees were grown from seeds imported from Summit Gardens, Panama where they had previously been introduced from Colombia. Fig. 2 of a carpenter bee in the flower leaves little doubt that the species under consideration is L. minor. Flowers that were bagged to exclude all all insects and others bagged to allow small insects such as thrips to enter the flowers did not set fruit. In addition, slides coated with oil and placed downwind to the trees to capture wind-blown pollen did not show any pollen of L. minor on the slides. Observations, indicate that two large insects, the carpenter bee (Xylocopa brasilianorum) and a scoliid wasp (Campsomeris trifasciata), are possible pollinators because their bodies contained pollen of L. minor and pollen was found on the stigmas after the carpenter bees and scoliid wasps departures from the flowers. The authors conclude that L. minor is allogamous, not wind pollinated, and that the most effectiive pollinator was the carpenter bee but that the scoliid wasp they observed also had the potential to affect pollination. Nectars of 16 flowers tested yielded between 23.8 to 31.8% soluble solids, with a mean of 27.8%.
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==Dispersal==
 +
The large, basal aril of this species suggest bat dispersal but this needs to be confirmed.
  
Dispersal: The large, basal aril of this species suggest bat dispersal but this needs to be confirmed.
+
==Taxonomic notes==
 +
Lecythis minor is characterized by trees of small to medium-sized stature; leaves with crenulate to serrulate margins; flowers with white, infrequently light yellow petals, light yellow to white androecial hoods, and a hood that is expanded at the apex and has appendages that curve inward but do not form a complete coil; mediium-sized fruits with a light brown pericarp; and seeds with a smooth, light brown surface between the major veins (see image below). The fruits are variable in the position of the calycine ring to such an extent that fruits from the same population could be considered separate species if they were not examined in the context of overall fruit variation. This variation has been described and illustrated with photographs by Dugand (1947, see literature for a PDF of the publication).
  
Taxonomic notes: Lecythis minor is characterized by trees of small to medium-sized stature; leaves with crenulate to serrulate margins; flowers with white, infrequently light yellow petals, light yellow to white androecial hoods, and a hood that is expanded at the apex and has appendages that curve inward but do not form a complete coil; mediium-sized fruits with a light brown pericarp; and seeds with a smooth, light brown surface between the major veins (see image below). The fruits are variable in the position of the calycine ring to such an extent that fruits from the same population could be considered separate species if they were not examined in the context of overall fruit variation. This variation has been described and illustrated with photographs by Dugand (1947, see literature for a PDF of the publication).
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==Uses==
 +
The seeds of this species are edible, but there have been several reports of hair and fingernail loss if too many are eaten from trees that grow on Selenium rich soils. Jacquin (1763), in the protologue of this species, said that the seeds tasted agreeable to him but half an hour after consuming one he felt nausea, great anxiety, and giddiness. This has been further documented by Dickson (1969) and Kerdel-Vegas (1966) for cultivated trees in Honduras and wild trees in Venezuela, respectively. See PDF's of these publications by searching for these authors in the "Literature" catalog. This species is cultivated sporadically in Central America and in tropical botanical gardens throughout the world.
  
Uses: The seeds of this species are edible, but there have been several reports of hair and fingernail loss if too many are eaten from trees that grow on Selenium rich soils. Jacquin (1763), in the protologue of this species, said that the seeds tasted agreeable to him but half an hour after consuming one he felt nausea, great anxiety, and giddiness. This has been further documented by Dickson (1969) and Kerdel-Vegas (1966) for cultivated trees in Honduras and wild trees in Venezuela, respectively. See PDF's of these publications by searching for these authors in the "Literature" catalog. This species is cultivated sporadically in Central America and in tropical botanical gardens throughout the world.
+
==Etymology==
 +
There is no reference to the meaning of the species epithet in the protologue but it probably refers to the relatively modest tree size in the dry vegetation around Cartagena where Jacquin observed the species in its native habitat.
  
Etymology: There is no reference to the meaning of the species epithet in the protologue but it probably refers to the relatively modest tree size in the dry vegetation around Cartagena where Jacquin observed the species in its native habitat.
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===Texto oculto para editar===
  
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Narratives Floral anatomy of Lecythis minor
 
Narratives Floral anatomy of Lecythis minor
 
Distribution Map all specimens of this taxon
 
Distribution Map all specimens of this taxon
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*Texto oculto para editar
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Open Viewer In New Window
 
Open Viewer In New Window
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Copyright © 2012 The New York Botanical Garden
 
Copyright © 2012 The New York Botanical Garden
 
C. V. Starr Virtual Herbarium | NYBG Science
 
C. V. Starr Virtual Herbarium | NYBG Science
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http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/projects/lp/monograph-details/?irn=9610
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==Monographs Details==
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Authority:
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Prance, Ghillean T. & Mori, S. A. 1979. Lecythidaceae - Part I. The actinomorphic-flowered New World Lecythidaceae (Asteranthos, Gustavia, Grias, Allantoma & Cariniana). Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 21: 1-270. (Published by NYBG Press)
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Family:
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Lecythidaceae
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Scientific Name:
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Lecythis minor Jacq.
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Synonyms:
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Lecythis elliptica Kunth, Chytroma valida Miers, Eschweilera valida (Miers) Nied., Lecythis bipartita Pittier, Chytroma bipartita (Pittier) R.Knuth, Lecythis purdiei R.Knuth, Eschweilera bolivarensis R.Knuth, Lecythis magdalenica Dugand
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Description:
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Description - Small to medium-sized trees, often branched from base when in open habitats, 5-25 m tall. Twigs gray, glabrous to pubescent. Bark gray, relatively smooth when young, with deep vertical fissures when older. Leaf blades ovate, elliptic, or oblong, 8.5-24.5 x 4.5-10 cm, glabrous, coriaceous, with 12-19 pairs of lateral veins; apex mucronate to acuminate, infrequently acute; base obtuse to rounded, infrequently truncate, narrowly decurrent; margins usually crenulate to serrate, infrequently entire; petiole 5-20 mm long, usually puberulous, infrequently glabrous. Inflorescences racemose, unbranched, or once-branched, terminal or in axils of uppermost leaves, the principal rachis 10-35 cm long, with 10-75 flowers, all rachises pubescent, the pedicels jointed, 1-3 mm long below articulation, subtended by an ovate, caducous bract 2-4 x 23 mm, with two broadly ovate, caducous bracteoles 3-6 x 3-4 mm inserted just below articulation. Flowers 5-7 cm diam.; calyx with six widely to very widely ovate, green lobes, 6-11 x 6-9 mm; petals six, widely obovate or less frequently widely oblong to oblong, 27-42 x 1425 mm, green in bud, usually white, less frequently light yellow at anthesis; hood of androecium dorsiventrally expanded, 20-23 x 19-25 mm, with well developed, inwardly curved, antherless appendages, the outside of hood white or light yellow, the appendages always light yellow; staminal ring with 300-410 stamens, the filaments 2 mm long, dilated at apex, light yellow, the anthers 0.5-0.7 mm long, yellow; hypanthium usually pubescent, infrequently glabrous; ovary 4-locular, with 3-6 ovules in each locule, the ovules inserted on floor of locule at juncture with septum, the summit of ovary umbonate, the style not well differentiated, 2-4.5 mm long. Fruits cup-like, globose or turbinate, 5-7 x 7-9 cm, the pericarp 7.5-11 mm thick. Seeds fusiform, 2.4-3 x 1.3-2 cm, reddish-brown, with 4-6 light brown longitudinal veins when dried, the testa smooth, with cord-like funicle surrounded by fleshy white aril at base. X = 17.
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Discussion:
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The seeds of L. minor have been reported to be somewhat toxic, especially if eaten in large quantities. Jacquin (1763), in his protologue of L. minor, states that the seeds tasted agreeable to him but half an hour after consuming one he felt nausea, great anxiety, and giddiness. Dickson (1969) attributes the temporary loss of hair and fingernails that he experienced after eating 300600 seeds of L. minor to toxic elements in the seeds. Throughout northern Colombia, L. minor is thought to be poisonous. However, Romero-Castañeda (1961) feels that they are non-toxic. The toxicity of the seeds may depend upon the soils in which the plants grow as some evidence suggests that toxic seeds come from plants found on soil high in selenium (Mori, 1970).
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Lecythis minor is morphologically similar to L. ollaria, a species found east of the Andes and also known for the toxicity of its seeds (Kerdel-Vegas, 1966).
 +
The specific epithet of the synonym L. bipartita alludes to the hood of the androecium which was divided in three of the four flowers examined by Pittier (Pittier 10998). Although one flower was undivided, Pittier concluded that the normal condition in his species was a split androecium. Nonetheless, another sheet, probably from the same gathering (del Castillo s. n. sub Pittier 10998), does not have divided androecia. Moreover, these and other collections from the same area of Venezuela are similar in all respects to L. minor and therefore L. bipartita cannot be maintained.
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Distribution:
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Honduras Central America| Cortés Honduras Central America| Panama Central America| Canal Zone Panamá Central America| Cuba South America| Colombia South America| Atlántico Colombia South America| Bolívar Colombia South America| Córdoba Colombia South America| Magdalena Colombia South America| Santander Colombia South America| Valle Colombia South America| Venezuela South America| Carabobo Venezuela South America| Zulia Venezuela South America|
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Common Names:
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coco de mono, cocuelo, coquillo, Olla de mono, ollita de mono
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Revisión del 06:37 12 jun 2020

Lecythis minor Jacquin. Colectada en la RNG por Francisco Javier Roldan Palacio en 1991, por Juan Guillermo Ramírez Arango en 1993 y por Gregor Janssen en 1994; los especímenes colectados están en el Herbario JAUM.

En la RNG se encuentran además:

  • otra especie del género Lecythis aún sin determinar: Lecythidaceae: Lecythis Loefl. 4648 y
  • Couroupita guianensis, n. v. maraco, observación de Francisco Javier Roldan Palacio, sin ejemplar de herbario. Véase descripción en: Lecythidaceae Pages (NYBG)

Datos tomados de Flora RNG
Familia Género especie autor nombre vernáculo colector hábito fruto semilla dispersión polinización I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII
98 LECYTHIDACEAE Lecythis minor minor Jacquin Coquillo JGR " 4742, R:1746, (Otros)" Arbol Capsula operculada "Grande, arilada" "Zoo (Roed.,Hominidos)" Entomofila (Apidae) Fr. Fr. Fl. Fl. Fl.


http://sweetgum.nybg.org/lp/taxon.php?irn=208108

Taxonomy Details

  • Family Lecythidaceae (Magnoliophyta)
  • Scientific Name Lecythis minor Jacq.
  • Primary Citation Select. Stirp. Amer. Hist. 168. 1763
  • Accepted Name This name is currently accepted.
  • Synonyms Heterotypic synonyms
    • Lecythis elliptica Kunth, 1825. Nov. Gen. Sp. (Kunth). 7: 259.
    • Chytroma valida Miers, 1874. Trans. Linn. Soc. London. 30: 241. Eschweilera valida (Miers) Nied., 1892. Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3(7): 40.
    • Lecythis bipartita Pittier, 1923. Arb. Arbust. Venez. 39. Chytroma bipartita (Pittier) R. Knuth, 1939. Pflanzenr. (Engler). IV, 219a: 75.
    • Eschweilera bolivarensis R. Knuth, 1939. Pflanzenr. (Engler). IV, 219a: 95.
    • Lecythis magdalenica Dugand, 1947. Caldasia. 4: 42.
    • Lecythis purdiei R. Knuth, 1939. Pflanzenr. (Engler). IV, 219a: 56.
  • Common Names Reference: Fl. Neotrop. Monogr.
    • coco de mono (Spanish); Geographic Location: Colombia coquillo (RNG)
  • Reference: The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5
    lecythis

Description

Type: Tabula 109 in Jacquin (lectotype, designated Mori & Prance, 1990).

Description: Small to medium-sized trees, often branched from base when in open habitats, 5-25 m tall. Twigs gray, glabrous to pubescent. Bark gray, relatively smooth when young, with deep vertical fissures when older. Leaf blades ovate, elliptic, or oblong, 8.5-24.5 x 4.5-10 cm, glabrous, coriaceous, with 12-19 pairs of lateral veins; apex mucronate to acuminate, infrequently acute; base obtuse to rounded, infrequently truncate, narrowly decurrent; margin usually crenulate to serrate, infrequently entire; petiole 5-20 mm long, usually puberulous, infrequently glabrous. Inflorescences racemose, unbranched, or once-branched, terminal or in axils of uppermost leaves, the principal rachis 10-35 cm long, with 10-75 flowers, all rachises pubescent; pedicels jointed, 1-3 mm long below articulation, subtended by an ovate, caducous bract 2-4 x 2-3 mm, with two broadly ovate, caducous bracteoles 3-6 x 3-4 mm inserted just below articulation. Flowers 5-7 cm diam.; calyx with 6, widely to very widely ovate, green lobes, 6-11 x 6-9 mm; petals six, widely obovate or less frequently widely oblong to oblong 27-42 x 14-25 mm, green in bud, usually white, less frequently light yellow at anthesis; hood of androecium once turned inward (see image attached below), 20-23 x 19-25 mm, with well developed, inwardly curved, antherless appendages, the outside of hood white or light yellow, the appendages always light yellow; staminal ring with 300-410 stamens, the filaments 2 mm long, dilated at apex, light yellow, the anthers 0.5-0.7 mm long, yellow; hypanthium usually pubescent, infrequently glabrous; ovary 4-locular, with 3-6 ovules in each locule, the ovules inserted on floor of locule at juncture with septum, the summit of ovary umbonate, the style not well differentiated, 2-4.5 mm long. Fruits cup-like (excluding operculum), globose or turbinate (including operculum), 5-7 x 7-9 cm, the pericarp 7.5-11 mm thick. Seeds fusiform, 2.4-3 x 1.3-2 cm, reddish-brown, with 4-6 light brown longitudinal veins when dried, the testa smooth; funicile cord-like; aril basal, fleshy, white, surrounding funicle. X - 17.

  • Common names:* Colombia: Coco de mono, cocuelo, coquillo, olla de mono, ollita de mono.

Distribution

Lecythis minor ranges from the northern coast of Colombia into the Magdalena and Cauca Valleys and east into the Maracaibo lowlands of Venezuela. It most often occurs in dry, open, somewhat disburbed habitats where it grows as a small, much-branched tree. However, it is also found in moister forests, especially along watercourses, where it forms a handsome, single-trunked tree to 25 meters. This species is cultivated sporadically in Central America and in tropical botanical gardens throughout the world.

Ecology/habitat

This species most often occurs in dry, open, somewhat disburbed habitats where it grows as a small, much-branched tree. However, it is also found in moister forests, especially along watercourses, where it forms a handsome, single-trunked tree to 25 meters.

Phenology

Lecythis minor flowers most profusely throughout its native range from Apr to Dec and fruits from Dec to Feb. In the protologue, Jacquin (1763) says that it flowers in Jun and Jul in the viciinity of Cartagena, Colombia. At Summit Garden in the Canal Zone (Panama) , where it is cultivated, this species flowers during the wet season from Apr to Nov.

Pollination

Jackson and Salas (1965) studied the pollination of Lecythis minor (as the synonym L. elliptica) based on a study of cultivated trees grown in Puerto Rico. These trees were grown from seeds imported from Summit Gardens, Panama where they had previously been introduced from Colombia. Fig. 2 of a carpenter bee in the flower leaves little doubt that the species under consideration is L. minor. Flowers that were bagged to exclude all all insects and others bagged to allow small insects such as thrips to enter the flowers did not set fruit. In addition, slides coated with oil and placed downwind to the trees to capture wind-blown pollen did not show any pollen of L. minor on the slides. Observations, indicate that two large insects, the carpenter bee (Xylocopa brasilianorum) and a scoliid wasp (Campsomeris trifasciata), are possible pollinators because their bodies contained pollen of L. minor and pollen was found on the stigmas after the carpenter bees and scoliid wasps departures from the flowers. The authors conclude that L. minor is allogamous, not wind pollinated, and that the most effectiive pollinator was the carpenter bee but that the scoliid wasp they observed also had the potential to affect pollination. Nectars of 16 flowers tested yielded between 23.8 to 31.8% soluble solids, with a mean of 27.8%.

Dispersal

The large, basal aril of this species suggest bat dispersal but this needs to be confirmed.

Taxonomic notes

Lecythis minor is characterized by trees of small to medium-sized stature; leaves with crenulate to serrulate margins; flowers with white, infrequently light yellow petals, light yellow to white androecial hoods, and a hood that is expanded at the apex and has appendages that curve inward but do not form a complete coil; mediium-sized fruits with a light brown pericarp; and seeds with a smooth, light brown surface between the major veins (see image below). The fruits are variable in the position of the calycine ring to such an extent that fruits from the same population could be considered separate species if they were not examined in the context of overall fruit variation. This variation has been described and illustrated with photographs by Dugand (1947, see literature for a PDF of the publication).

Uses

The seeds of this species are edible, but there have been several reports of hair and fingernail loss if too many are eaten from trees that grow on Selenium rich soils. Jacquin (1763), in the protologue of this species, said that the seeds tasted agreeable to him but half an hour after consuming one he felt nausea, great anxiety, and giddiness. This has been further documented by Dickson (1969) and Kerdel-Vegas (1966) for cultivated trees in Honduras and wild trees in Venezuela, respectively. See PDF's of these publications by searching for these authors in the "Literature" catalog. This species is cultivated sporadically in Central America and in tropical botanical gardens throughout the world.

Etymology

There is no reference to the meaning of the species epithet in the protologue but it probably refers to the relatively modest tree size in the dry vegetation around Cartagena where Jacquin observed the species in its native habitat.

Texto oculto para editar